Questions to be answered
1. A researcher is interested in the relationship between physical activity and cognitive function among older adults. A sample of 200 participants completed a short survey where they reported their age (in years), gender, and number of close friends (0,1,2 ...) as well as the amount of time (recorded in hours) they spent in low, moderate and vigorous physical activity over the past 7 days (i.e., capturing weekdays and weekends). A total weekly physical activity measure(‘Weekly PA' = total weekly PA time / hours) was computed from the low, moderate and vigorous physical activity measures. At the time of completing the survey, respondents also completed The Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS), a 10-item screening tool where they completed 10 cognitive tasks such as recalling specific dates, times, names and locations as well as performing a basic counting task. Each of the 10 taskscompleted correctly was scored as a ‘1' yielding a score on cognitive function ranging from 0 (low cognitive function) through to 10 (high cognitive function). Having scored, compiled, checked and screened the data, the researcher performed several correlation analyses and obtained the following results. The correlation between Age (years) and Cognitive Function (0-10) wasr = -0.35, p<0.05 while the correlation between Weekly PA (hours) and Cognitive Function (0-10) wasr = 0.43, p<0.05. Briefly state what each of these results means.
2. A researcher is interested in exploring patterns of communicationamong local junior football coaches. She decides to use a qualitative approach as she believes that this will provide her with a deeper understanding of the contextual factors that influence coach communications however she is uncertain about what method of data collection to use. Choose one method of data collection that you would recommend the researcher use; briefly describe how this method of data collection could be used by the researcher; and indicate one advantage and one disadvantage / consideration associated with this method of data collection.
3. Braun and Clarke (2006) summarise thematic analysis according to six phases. The first of these phases (i.e., Phase 1) is titled ‘familiarizing yourself with your data'. Reflecting on this phase: 1) summarise the key activities a researcher would perform during this phase; and 2) identify any challenge(s) associated with performing these activities.
4. It is important for qualitative researchers to provide evidence of the trustworthiness of their study. Briefly describe three techniques that could be used by a researcher to increase the trustworthiness of their data and conclusions.
SPSS analyses and reporting and interpreting results
Burnout is a significant issue among coaches in all levels of sport including community (local) level sport. One conceptualisation of burnout proposes that it consists of three different dimensions: 1) emotional exhaustion (EE); 2) depersonalisation (DP); and 3) personal accomplishment (PA). Maslach and Jackson (1981) developed the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) as a way to measure each of these dimensions.The MBI comprises 22 items and responses are indicated using a 7-point Likert scale from 0 (never) to 6 (every day). The three burnout dimensions are measured via separate subscales:
- The EE subscale consists of 9 items (higher scores reflecting mental exhaustion, mental fatigue, emotional depletion...);
- The DP subscale consists of 5 items (higher scores reflecting detachment from others, lack of regard for others, disconnection from others...); and
- The PA subscale consists of 8 items (higher scores reflecting goal achievement, greater productivity, higher effectiveness...).
A study investigated levels of burnout among community coaches. A sample of 50 community coaches completed a short survey where they reported background demographic and coaching information as well as the Maslach Burnout Inventory. This data is recorded in the datafile ‘HSE104 AT2 Burnout.sav'. For the following questions you will need to download the datafile ‘HSE104 AT2 Burnout.sav' from the Assignment 2 folder on Moodle. You should download and save a copy of this file to a location where you can navigate to the file and successfully open it from within SPSS (e.g., local drive on your own laptop;location on your Deakin student directory).
The datafile contains 12 variables and these are described as follows:
- ‘gender' - Gender of coach [1 = male; 2 = female]
- ‘age' - Age of coach (years)
- ‘agegrp' - Age of coach, categorised into 2 groups [1 = less than 35 years; 2 = 35 years or older]
- ‘yearscoach' - Period involved as a coach (years)
- ‘yearscoachgrp' - Period involved as a coach, categorised into 2 groups [1 = less than 15 years; 2 = 15 or more years]
- ‘locncoach' - Region where you mostly coach [1= metro; 2 = regional; 3 = rural]
- ‘timecoach' - Time spent coaching (hours/week)
- ‘timecoachgrp' - Time spent coaching, categorised into 2 groups [1 = less than 20 hours/week; 2 = 20 or more hours/week]
- ‘ee' - Maslach Burnout Inventory: Emotional Exhaustion score [range: 0 - 54 with lower scores = lower levels of emotional exhaustion and higher scores = higher levels of emotional exhaustion]
- ‘dp' - Maslach Burnout Inventory: Depersonalisation score [range: 0 - 30 with lower scores = lower levels of depersonalisation and higher scores = higher levels of depersonalisation]
- ‘pa' - Maslach Burnout Inventory: Personal Accomplishment score [range: 0 - 48 with lower scores = lower levels of personal accomplishment and higher scores = higher levels of personal accomplishment]
- ‘contincoach' - Intention to continue coaching beyond this year/season?
You should use a University PC to access the SPSS program to answer these questions.(NB. If you choose to use SPSS via Apps on Demand [i.e., browser-based SPSS] then you should be clear about file handling processes and allow time for the output file export).
Using SPSS you should open the ‘HSE104 AT2 Burnout.sav' datafile (File menu → Open →Data) and then familiarise yourself with the datafile, variables, variable labels, and actual data-points. You should then perform analyses to answer the following questions:
1. Summarise the characteristics of the sample. You should use SPSS for this task. Once you have finished running analyses on the variables indicated below, refer to the SPSS output to complete Tables 1 and 2.
2. Previous research indicates that levels of burnout reduce with age. Run analyses to test the hypothesis that age is related to level of burnout (make sure you include the three dimensions of burnout and that you understand the direction of each of these dimensions).You should use SPSS for this task. As a preliminary step, you should check each of the following variables for normality (i.e., the overall distribution NOT distributions for subgroups). You should then perform the correlation analyses. Once you have completed these analyses you should refer to the SPSS output to complete Tables 3and 4.
3. Previous research indicates that female coaches experience higher levels of burnout than their male counterparts. This is reported to be particularly true for the emotion-focused dimension of burnout captured by the ‘emotional exhaustion' subscale. Run analyses to test the hypothesis that female coaches will report higher levels of burnout than male coaches for each of the three dimensions of burnout. You should use SPSS for this task. As a preliminary step, you should check each of the burnout variables for normality (i.e., for male and female subgroups). You should then perform ttests to test for gender differences on each of the three burnout dimensions. Once you have completed these analyses you should refer to the SPSS output to complete Tables 5and 6.
4. Previous research has also indicated that coaches from larger community sports organisations which are typically found in metropolitan regions experience higher levels of burnout. This is reported to be particularly true for the emotion-focused and relationship-focused dimensions of burnout captured by the ‘emotional exhaustion' and ‘depersonalisation' subscales. Run analyses to test the hypothesis that metropolitan coaches will report higher levels on these two dimensions of burnout than their regional and rural counterparts. You should use SPSS for this task. As a preliminary step, you should check each of the following variables for normality (for region subgroups). You should then perform one-way ANOVAs totest for:1) equal variances; and 2) differences (for the two burnout dimensions of interest) for coaches from the three regions. You should use the obtained F statistic and corresponding probability (p value) to determine whether or not post-hoc testing is required. Where you determine that post-hoc testing is required (i.e.,a significant ANOVA result is determined) then you should perform these analyses using the Tukey's HSD test. Once you have completed these analyses you should refer to the SPSS output to complete Tables 7, 8and 9.
5. Finally, international evidence also indicates that coaches who report high levels of emotion-focused burnout (i.e., ‘emotional exhaustion' subscale) are more likely to stop coaching. Since participants from the current study reported on their intentions on whether they were going to continuing coaching beyond the current year/season we can ‘indirectly' test this (i.e., we are analysing intentions to leave rather than whether coaches actually do / don't leave but this is sufficient for our purposes). Thus, you should conduct an appropriate analysis to test the hypothesis that coaches who intend to stop coaching will report higher levels of emotional exhaustion than coaches who report that they intend on continuing coaching. You should use SPSS for this task. As a preliminary step, you should check the variable of interest for normality (i.e., for ‘continuing' and ‘not continuing'subgroups). You should then perform an appropriate ttest to test for differences on the ‘emotional exhaustion' variable. Once you have completed these analyses you should refer to the SPSS output and write up your results in a short summary into Table 10.
Presentation, referencing and SPSS output file
Presentation-Including spelling, grammar, clarity, and adherence to word limits/format requirements
Referencing-Accuracy of referencing (i.e., citing sources appropriately; correct reference list)
SPSS output file-APDF copy (NOT ‘spv' SPSS output file) of your cleaned SPSS output (i.e., a file that contains only figures / tables / text that are relevant for the five questions; all other ‘extraneous' information can be deleted from your output file so your PDF file size is manageable).